With the largest state economy in the U.S., and the world’s 9th1 largest, California relies on clean diesel as the powerhouse for the state’s core industries2, and as a key technology for meeting climate and clean air goals. Clean diesel technology powers tractors and water pumps in the fields, construction equipment on roads and building sites, and emergency backup generators at hospitals and even on movie sets and award shows. Thanks to California’s leadership in promoting cleaner energy and environmental protection, clean diesel technology is a key component in helping California achieve both today’s and tomorrow’s environmental and climate goals.
In recent years, technological advances have brought unmatched environmental progress to the diesel industry through a new clean diesel system — combining cleaner diesel fuel, advanced engines and effective exhaust control technology. As a result, in 2010, all diesel engines in California account for only 11 percent of all particulate emissions that is projected to decline to nine percent by 2015. Since 2010 heavy-duty trucks and buses have been the first segment to become virtually free of emissions that contribute to smog or ozone formation — particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions. These same clean diesel technologies are now being phased in for new off-road vehicles and equipment through 2015. Greenhouse gas emission reductions are being realized primarily through the efficiency of diesel engines, with hybridization in some segments like transit buses. Renewable and bio-based diesel fuels can reduce carbon emissions further in both new and existing vehicles. Many existing older diesel vehicles can achieve improvements in emissions levels through modernizing and upgrading programs that allow many to be retrofitted with emissions control devices.Diesel Powers California's Economy
CALIFORNIA AT A GLANCE
1st in U.S. 3
total registered: 27,724,840
diesel registered: 572,303 4
total annual diesel fuel sold:
10.1 million gallons a day 5
2nd in U.S.
biodiesel: 74 retailers, 61 distributors and ten production facilities
132,000 diesel-powered construction vehicles are used in the state's construction industry, generating $58 billion annually and employing nearly 458,000 people.9
The annual sales value of California's agricultural products are roughly $43.5 billion in 2011 accounting for 15 percent of the country's total agricultural output and providing approximately 386,283 jobs.10
Machines such as farm tractors, combines and irrigation pumps consume roughly 240 thousand gallons of diesel fuel annually. 11
California's mining industry is the third largest in the country, producing $12.8 billion annually.12 The state also has the third largest refinery capacity producing almost two billion barrels a day in 2011.13Diesel is the Backbone of California's Transportation System
CALIFORNIA AT A GLANCE
20-40 percent more fuel efficient than gasoline counterparts
USE OF BIODIESEL
Using a B20 blend can reduce CO2 emissions 15 percent
RETROFIT EMISSION REDUCTIONS
Diesel retrofit technology can reduce emissions between 25-90 percent
43 percent fuel economy benefit
42 percent lower maintenance costs over CNG transit buses
More than 40 percent of the total containerized cargo coming into the United States enters through California ports. The ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach are the first and second busiest container ports in the United States and are together responsible for moving over 10 million import and export containers (TEUs). The California Association of Port Authorities estimates that the ports generate $14.3 billion in wages and salaries in the region and sustain one in 22 jobs in southern California is directly tied to port activity, supporting 4.7 million jobs across the U.S. and serving as the sixth busiest container complex in the world.14 California also has one of the largest ferry fleets in the country, 95 percent of which is diesel-powered.15
Approximately 153 million tons of cargo are carried over California's 5,300 rail miles each year.16 California has the largest trucking industry in the U.S., employing more than 862,235 workers.17 All freight rail and over 90 percent of commercial truck transportation is powered by diesel technology.
California has one of the largest fleets of public transit buses deployed throughout the state. While natural gas powered buses are more prevalent in Southern California transit fleets, other parts of California rely predominately on diesel power and increasingly diesel-electric hybrid buses. The Municipal Transit Administration, or “Muni”, in San Francisco has the third largest diesel-electric hybrid bus fleet in the country. Hybrid buses reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 30 percent and reduce fuel and maintenance costs for the transit agency. “Muni” and the City of San Francisco announced a plan to convert the fleet of buses to hybrid-diesels to meet greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets.18
Diesel Supports Public Health and Safety
CAL FIRE, the state's Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, owns and operates more than 3,000 emergency vehicles, ranging from fire engines, bulldozers, trailers, construction equipment, and mobile kitchen units, all of which are powered by diesel technology.19
Clean Diesel Passenger Cars in California
Clean diesel cars have emerged as a popular option with consumers and are a key strategy for reducing emissions of CO2 and petroleum consumption. On average clean diesels achieve 30 percent or more better fuel economy than gasoline, which is why U.S. sales of diesel cars jumped 24 percent since 2010. From 2010-2012, California was the fastest growing state for registrations of new clean diesel cars and SUVs, with now more than 572,000 registered diesel passenger vehicles in California. This compares to approximately 548,000 gasoline hybrids.20
Nationally, if diesel vehicles made up 15 percent of the passenger fleet, they would save 17 billion gallons of fuel, 413 million barrels of oil and 205 million metric tonnes of CO2 by 2038.21
California Policymakers Recognize the Value of Clean Diesel Technology
In 2000, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted the Diesel Risk Reduction Plan to reduce particulate matter emissions - 75 percent from diesel vehicles and engines by 2010, and 85 percent by 2020 (from year 2000 baselines). Since 2001, CARB has approved new regulations for a variety of public and private diesel fleets in the construction, trucking and other sectors.
In February 2010, CARB amended its original regulations for in-use off-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles and equipment, delaying the implementation schedule. Regulations for in-use agricultural equipment are still planned. In addition to regulatory action, in 2000, California established the first incentive based program to aide in upgrading existing engines and equipment, known as the Carl Moyer program. Over its first 12 years, the program has provided over $680 million from a mix of state and local funds to modernize and upgrade approximately 24,000 engines in on- and off-road vehicles as well as locomotives and other vehicles. Cumulatively, this has reduced emissions of PM and ozone precursors (NOx and Reactive organic gases) by about 100,000 and 6,000 tons respectively. Its current funding is approximately $69 million a year.
In 2006, Californians significantly increased their funding for clean diesel technology through the passage of Proposition 1B, the Highway Safety, Traffic Reduction, Air Quality, and Port Security Bond Act of 2006. Under this measure, the state was authorized to sell $20 billion in bonds, with $1 billion dedicated to the Goods Movement Emissions Reduction Program, and $200 million for the Low Emission School Bus Program.
In 2007, the Air Quality Improvement Program was signed into law, creating an incentive program voluntary emissions reductions. It is administered by ARB to fund clean vehicle and equipment projects as well as advanced technology demonstrations. Much of the program's annual $30-40 million has supported the Hybrid and Zero-Emission Truck and Bus Voucher Incentive Project.
1 California Energy Commission, Integrated Energy Policy Report, 2012 , http://www.energy.ca.gov/2012publications/CEC-100-2012-001/CEC-100-2012-001-CMF.pdf
5 U.S. Energy Information Agency: Prime Supplier Sales Volume of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel. http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_prim_a_EPD2DXL0_P00_Mgalpd_a.htm
6 U.S. Energy Information Agency: State CO2 Emissions. http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/state/state_emissions.cfm
8 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Currently Designated Nonattainment Areas for All Criteria Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/oaqps001/greenbk/ancl.html#Notes
9 California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, Workshops on Information Regarding the Off-Road, Truck and Bus and Drayage Truck Regulations (Aug/September 2010 Workshop Series, September 2, 2010) http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/ordiesel/documents/emissions_inventory_presentation_handout_10_09_03.pdf Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Accounts. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment, Hours, and Earnings.
10 California Department of Food and Agriculture, 2011, Agricultural Statistical Review, http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/statistics/; California Employment Development Department, Agricultural employment in California, 2011. http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/?PAGEID=158
11 Energy Information Administration, Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use, California. http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_821use_dcu_SCA_a.htm
12 The National Mining Association, Mining in California 2010. http://www.nma.org/pdf/states/econ/ca.pdf
13 20 Energy Information Administration, California State Energy Profile (EIA, 2011). http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=CA
14 California Association of Port Authorities. http://californiaports.org/economic-benefits/
15 Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Research and Innovative Technologies Administration: National Census on Ferry Boats Statistics. http://www.ncfodatabase.bts.gov/ncfodb/NCFO_DQ.jsp
18 San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. Hybrid Buses. http://www.sfmta.com/cms/mfleet/hybrids.htm
19 California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, Mobile Equipment (Sacramento, CA: CAL FIRE, 2008). http://www.fire.ca.gov/fire_protection/fire_protection_mobile_equip.php
21 The Martec Group, American Road: The Opportunity for Clean Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles, Prepared for the Diesel Technology Forum, July 2008. http://www.dieselforum.org